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The synthesis of highly selective immobilised ligands for extraction of toxic metal ions from wastewater
Expanded Title:Toxic metals are recalcitrant, inorganic pollutants and should not escape to the environment in wastewater. The ions of concern in this report are: Cr(VI) (carcinogenic), As(V)(lethal ground water contamination), Sr(II)(radioactive by-product in nuclear power plants), Cd(II)(6th most poisonous substance both for humans and animals), Hg(II)(most Hg compounds are extremely toxic and can result in a perpetual destructive cycle), U(VI)(radioactive and extremely toxic). This study synthesised novel ligands for the selective extraction of radionuclides and toxic elements from mine water containing other metal ions and designed an ion exchange system that selectively removes radionuclides and toxic elements from mine water. The project has focused on three aspects namely; the synthesis of selective ligands, the immobilisation of the ligands on silica/polymer supports and the applicability of the immobilised ligands for extraction of toxic metals. Two novel ligands were synthesised and separately two crown ether derivatives were all immobilised onto four different silica supports. These immobilised ligand systems were used to extract six different toxic metal and metalloid ions in water. The extraction capacities of the different immobilised ligands were compared so as to determine whether the substrates had any influence on the extraction capabilities of these ligands and it was shown that both the support and the type of ligand impacted upon the selectivity and removal capacity. This research is also reporting for the first time the fabrication of a combination of nanofibres prepared via electrospinning process followed by the immobilisation of a selective ligand on the nanofibers, namely 2-pyridine amidoxime (PyAMI) which was synthesised through the reaction between 2-pyridine carbonitrile and hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Electrospun PAN-nfs was used as support for PyAMI ligands to produce new adsorptive, PAN-PyAMI in non-woven mat format. The nanofibres have shown potential in adsorption of specific toxic metal contaminants from water and the nanofiber mats could be regenerated.
Date Published:01/08/2018
Document Type:Research Report
Document Subjects:Wastewater Management - Industrial
Document Keywords:Technology
Document Format:Report
Document File Type:pdf
Research Report Type:Standard
WRC Report No:2391/1/18
ISBN No:978-1-4312-0009-5
Authors:Barnard B; Bode-Aluko CA; Pereao O; Fatoba OO; Luckay R; Petrik LF
Project No:K5/2391
Originator:WRC
Organizations:University of Western Cape ,South Africa
Document Size:2 920 KB
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